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                         The Annotated Sandman
               Edited by Ralf Hildebrandt and largely written by Greg Morrow
                      Issue 49: Brief Lives Nine
              Neil Gaiman, Jill Thompson, and Vince Locke

Notes:  See #41.  This issue is the coda for the arc, reprising all that 
we've seen before and reiterating "change" as the theme.  The briefness of
life reinforces the change embodied by Destruction.  The emphasis upon
change is meant to point out the change in Dream since his imprisonment,
as remarked by Orpheus in 49:3.3 and by Destruction in 47:24.2 and 48:17.5.
	It is perhaps worth noting that the epilog does not strictly begin
until 3: or 4:.  1: and 2: are necessarily a part of the central story and
are themselves reprised in 7:.  Despair's reappearance in 4: is a strict 
reprise of her role in #41.  

1: Farewells

Page 1 panel 2:  The pictured woman is Eurydice, Orpheus' wife.  This is
a fantasy; see Special #1 for a detailed explanation.
	Panel 3:  House across the bay: Destruction's house, as made clear
last issue.

2: Answered Prayers

3: The Flowers of Romance

Page 6 panel 1-6:  As remarked by Desire on 10.5, these are new flowers. 
The creation of a new flower (or similar thing) is a common element in
many mythic cycles.  There are several examples in the familiar Greek
myths.  Note the technique of narrow divided vertical panels with gutters.
This is typically used in, for example, action shots to indicate very
rapid passage of time.  Each gutter is an instant of time, and the close
spacing indicates rapidity.  Here, perhaps, the shear number of gutters is
meant to indicate a long pause as the blood drops and the flowers grow.
In any case, it doesn't work, as the continuity from panel to panel
indicates that the whole set of panels is a single instant.
	Panel 9:  Again, see Special #1 or Graves or another classical 
Greek myth text for details.

4: Journey's End

Page 7 panel 2:  Note the blood marks on Despair's forehead; these are
probably from self-mutilation inflicted while Dream met with Destruction or
slew Orpheus.
	Panel 6:  Messire:  Probably from Late or Vulgar Latin or Old French, 
the equivalent of Modern French "monsieur", lit. my lord, my sire (male).

Page 9 panel 5:  Seen in Despair's mirrors, from right to left:  Andros
(41:1), unidentified child (Andros's grandchild?), graveyard (Mary Canby's 
graveyard (21.1)?), a kitten (Chloe's kitten?), and Desire.

Page 10 panel 1:  Baby Daniel (#40) is in the mirror to Desire's right.
	Panel 4:  Baby Daniel in a mirror again.
	Panel 5:  Oath:  Sworn in #31.  Spilling family blood will bring
down the wrath of the Kindly Ones, a punishing aspect of the Triple
Goddess.  See Aeschylus' trilogy of plays, the _Orestia_ (_Agamemnon_, 
_Orestes_, _Eumenides_) for details.
	Panel 6:  Is that Etain (43:13) in the mirror behind Despair?

5: The Gates of Horn
	Note: The gates' purpose is as given in classical mythology.  See the
annotation to #2 for citations from Homer and Virgil.

Page 11 panel 2:  Skull and...spine:  As seen clearly in 23:1.3 and
remarked in 4:14.2.  
	Gertrude Jobes' _Dictionary of Mythology, Folklore, and Symbols_
mentions three attendants of Morpheus (a Roman name of Dream):  Icelos 
(dreams that appear real), Phantasos (false or strange dreams), and 
Phobetor (alarming dreams).
	Other sources indicate that Morpheus, Icalus/Phobetor, and
Phantasus were the children of Hypnos.  [Lance Smith has accumulated some
fairly exhaustive notes on the Greek sources of Dream and the other

6: Things Unlooked For

Page 14 panel 3:  Faerie gifts:  The unreliability of the Faerie folk is
a traditional feature of folktales.  (Refs?)

Page 17 panel 1-2: The Cryptogeographica (lit. "hidden earth writing",
meaning "maps of imagined places"):
	Ousland City from Top to Bottom:  No refs.
	Poictesme:  From James Branch Cabell's fantasy.
	Kadath:  From H.P. Lovecraft's _Dream-quest of Unknown Kadath_.
	Puddleby:  From Hugh Lofting's Doctor Doolittle tales.
	Sardathrion:  From a short story (title uncertain, either
"Sardathrion" or "Time and the Gods") by Lord Dunsany, the
gods' summer home, destroyed by Time.
	Saffron Park:  The starting and ending points for G K Chesterton's
_The Man Who Was Thursday_.
	Hobbiton:  From J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle-Earth stories.
	The Land:  Despite the generic name, probably from Stephen
Donaldson's two fantasy trilogies.
	Flora of Neverland:  From J.M. Barrie's Peter Pan stories.
	The Night Land:  From fantasy works by William Hope Hodgson
(1875-1918), including an eponymous novel.
	One Night in Baghdad:  See #50; probably from 1,001 Arabian Nights.
The title may be a pun on Murray Head's song "One Night in Bangkok" from
the musical _Chess_.
	Noumaria on 7 Livres a Day: No refs.  A "livre" is a pre-19th
century French monetary unit.  The title is taken from the original cheap
traveling guidebook _Europe on Five Dollars a Day_.
	Hy-Brasil by Night: Hy-Brasil (or Hy-Breasil) is the Summer Country 
from Celtic myth or an island in the Atlantic whose inhabitants were said to
be so morally pure that the island cut its gross earthly connections and
could only be seen by those free of worldly desires.  Brazil gets its name 
from this legend.  Hy-Brasil is used by James Branch Cabell and in the
movie _Erik the Viking_, and is also referenced in the Peter S Beagle novel 
_The Folk of the Air_ and the R A Lafferty novel _The Fire is Green_.
	Los Angeles Underground Railway Map 1932:  No strong refs.  LA 
is building a light rail system (which will include underground sections), 
and at one time had an extensive trolley network.  In 1932, the Summer 
Olympics were held in Los Angeles, which would presumably have prompted an 
increase in tourism and a corresponding increase in guidebooks.
	[From]mer's [Guide to H]ell:  A popular travel guide produces an
edition for Milton and Dante.
	[N]arnia:  From C.S. Lewis' fantasy.
	[Hitchhiker]'s Guide [to the] Galaxy:  From Douglas Adams' humorous
SF.  Neil has written a companion to the series.
	Road Trips to [the] Emerald City:  From L. Frank Baum's (and
others) Oz fantasies (note that one such work was _The Road to Oz_ and one 
was _The Emerald City of Oz_.)
	Alleys and Bradstreets:  No strong refs.  A "Bradstreet" is a 
particular brand of travel guide.
	Great Hotels on the Moon:  No refs, but an inhabitable moon was a
common subject of proto-SF, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Robert Heinlein, who wrote a number of works set on a colonized moon, often
had characters staying in hotels there, particularly the Raffles (itself a
reference to the fictional thief).
	Camp Cusack Guide:  No refs.  Possibly a reference to any one of a
number of slasher films, which always seemed to be set in summer camps.
	Ampersand:  No refs.  An ampersand is the "and" sign, and once was
considered a letter of the alphabet.
	Mu A to Z:  Mu is a lost continent in the vein of Atlantis,
envisioned by the crackpot Colonel James Churchward, who wrote _The Lost
Continent of Mu_, which was ostensibly the translation of ancient writings
of the civilization of Mu.  The title comes from _London A to Z_, the
most reliable and most widely used London map publication.  The title is a
nice little pun, as "mu" is a letter of the Greek alphabet.  "Mu" is also a
word from Zen Buddhism, refering to a question that makes no sense or that
cannot be answered sensibly.  The classic example of this is "May a dog have 
Buddha nature?".
	Cloud Cu[ckoo-Land]:  A translation of "Nephelokokkugia", a name
coined by the Greek comic playwright Aristophanes.
	See also _The Dictionary of Imaginary Places_ by Alberto Manguel
and Gianni Guadalupi.
	Panel 3:  The cat recalls the folktale Puss in Boots, but in 
conjunction with the mouse is probably meant to be an archetype of the 
classic cat-mouse chase.  This is probably most familiar to modern readers
as exemplified in such cartoons as "Tom and Jerry" and "Itchy and
	Panel 5:  "Little" and "sky is falling" may be an oblique reference
to the story of Chicken Little, who thought the sky was falling.
	Panel 6:  Real life:  Mervyn's talent for putting his foot in his
mouth shows through again, as Dream is probably "overreacting" to the
knowledge that the Kindly Ones will demand his death for spilling family

7: Brief Lives

Page 19:  This is remembrance, not Dream conversing with Orpheus as he
passes through the Dreaming on his way Beyond.
	Panel 4:  As this is long past, the red stone is probably meant to
be Dream's ruby.

Page 21 panel 1:  Mary Canby: See 41:6.
	Panel 2:  Chloe Russell: See 43:22.  Chloe's pet is probably the
cat Basht euthanized in 46:15.  It has also been speculated that one 
or the other of Chloe's cats is the young cat of #18.
	Panel 3:  Danny Capax: See 44:6.

Page 22 panel 1:  Tom Flaherty: See 45:5.
	Panel 2:  Tiffany:  See 45:1.
	Panel 3:  The eye is Desire's.

Release history:              
Version 1.0 released 5 July 93
Version 2.0 released and archived 18 September 93

Contributors include:
	Dorothy Lindman (f132@untvax.bitnet) developed the "Biblical" 
reference coding (Issue:Page.panel).
	Lance Smith (lsmith@cs.umn.edu) read the Cryptogeographica titles.
	David Pautler (pautler@ils.nwu.edu) and Lance Smith did research on
the three dead gods.
	Carl Fink (carlf@panix.com) spotted what may be seen in Despair's
mirrors and speculated about Chloe's kitten.
	David Goldfarb (goldfarb@ocf.berkeley.edu) recognized the name
Cloud Cuckoo-Land and Bruce Lyman Precourt (prec@ellis.uchicago.edu)
corrected him on its origins.
	Tom Galloway (tyg@HQ.Ileaf.COM) orated on LA's subway.
        Rob Bakie  ID Hy-Brasil.
        Joseph Brenner (doom@leland.Stanford.EDU) IDed the Night Land and
the LA Underground system.
        Dan'l DanehyOakes (djdaneh@pbhyc.PacBell.COM) IDed the Night Land,
Hy-Brasil, a partial Oz ref, Bradstreets, and lunar hotels.
	Andrew Solovay (solovay@netcom.com) IDed Chloe's former cat.
        Sascha Segan  IDed the LA underground and Camp
	Steve Ward-Smith (pcxsws@unicorn.ccc.nottingham.ac.uk) provided
references for Mu and Hy-Brasil.
	Peter Trei (ptrei@bistromath.mitre.org) IDed Saffron Park, guidebooks
to cheap traveling, Hy-Brasil, and "A to Z" maps.
	David Goldfarb (goldfarb@ocf.berkeley.edu) IDed Sardathrion and
Hy-Brasil (from his Books of Magic annotations).
	Kathy Li (The Rev. Mom) (kathyli@sdcrsi.cray.com) IDed "A to Z"
	Geoff Steckel (gsteckel@harpoon.East.Sun.COM) ID'ed Saffron Park.
	Colonel G.L.Sicherman (gls@hrcms.ATT.COM) ID'ed Hy-Brasil.
	Jonathan Miller (jlmiller@hamp.hampshire.edu) noted _Eumenides_.
	Damon Crumpler (dbc3@po.CWRU.Edu) noted the zen meaning of "mu".
        Jon Aibel (aibel@opl.com) IDed LA mass transit.
	Alexx Kay (Alexx@world.std.com) noted the Mu pun.
	"Esther" William Sherman  noted graves,
misIDed the Night Land and IDed Hy-Brasil.
	Catherine LeCuyer  IDed Hy-Brasil.
        Jim Henry (jim.henry@ehbbs.com) IDed Sardathrion.

© by Ralf Hildebrandt
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This file was last modified 27. Jan 2007 by root