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An Annotation of Literary, Historic, and Artistic References
in Alan Moore's Graphic Novel, _V_for_Vendetta_.
Madelyn Boudreaux, Madelyn@gothics.org.
April 27, 1994

Part 1 of 3

Copyright 1994, Madelyn Boudreaux.
Distribute but do not modify.  Send corrections, changes, and 
suggestions to Madelyn@gothics.org.

This annotation was prepared for a graduate class in Literary
Research, under the direction of Dr. James Means, at the
Northwestern State University of Louisiana, in the spring of
1994.

Additions by Ralf Hildebrandt 

The Graphic Novel
	_V_for_Vendetta_, written by Alan Moore and illustrated
by David Lloyd, is a work generally described as a "graphic
novel."  The term is used to distinguish serious works within
the genre from the stereotypes of "super-hero" comic books.

The Question of Source
	In his 1983 essay "Behind the Painted Smile,"
_V_for_Vendetta_'s author Alan Moore discusses the issue of
ideas and genesis.  His opening comments refer to the typical
scene from any given science fiction convention, where
hoardes of (usually) young fans pack hotel convention rooms to
hear their icons (the writers, actors, directors, and thinkers
behind science fact and fiction) speak a few words:  one eager
kid, voice wavering (thinking, I've been waiting my *whole life*
for this moment) asks "Where do you get your ideas from?".
The reaction:

	We sneer.  We lampoon and ridicule the sniveling little
	oaf before his peers.... We imply that even to have
	voiced such a question places him irretrievably in the
	same category as the common pencil-sharpener.... The
	reason why we do this is pretty straightforward.  Firstly,
	in the dismal and confused sludge of opinion and half-
	truth that make up all artistic theory and criticism, it is
	the only question worth asking.  Secondly, we don't
	know the answer and we're scared that somebody will
	find out. (p. 268).

	Rather than ever find myself in such an embarrasing
position, I have undertaken to ferret out the origins of Moore's
ideas.  The task has been unbelievably arduous, not because
any of the sources were too difficult to find, but because Moore
covered so much ground.  I found myself walking from one end
of the library to the other, consulting science dictionaries, rose-
naming serials, history books, films, and musical compact
discs.  I even explored some of my questions on the Internet,
sending inquiries about such topics Son of Sam and Aliester
Crowley, and receiving answers from around the world!
	Moore has aparently learned that his questioners want
to know about his ideas;  at the present Moore is working on a
graphic series called "From Hell" which features as its main
character Jack the Ripper.  I was unable to locate any issues of
this work, but I am told that it is entirely annotated by Moore
(Coates, personal communication).  This is certainly unusual
for a "comic book" but Moore is clearly addressing the issues
of origin more clearly, perhaps for himself as well as for the
reader.

	In developing the origial _V_for_Vendetta_ series,
Moore and Lloyd  "wanted to do something that would be
uniquely British rather than emulate the vast amount of
American material on the market,"  (Moore 270).  Both were
political pessimists, and decided that the in world they wanted
to portray "the future would be pretty grim, bleak and
totalitarian, thus giving us a convenient antagonist to play our
hero off against,"  (Moore 270).  They played with ideas,
borrowing from books like _Farenheit_451_, until Moore, in
frustration, compiled a list of the elements he wanted to draw
together for the piece. He writes:

	The list was something as follows:  Orwell. Huxley.
	Thomas Disch. _Judge_Dredd_. Harlan Ellison's
	"Repent Harlequin! Said the Ticktockman."  "Catman"
	and "Prowler in the City at the Edge of the World" by the
	same author. Vincent Price's _Dr._Phibes_ and
	_Theatre_of_Blood_. David Bowie. The Shadow.
	Nightraven. Batman. _Farenheit_451_. The writings of
	the _New_Worlds_ school of science fiction. Max Ernst's
	painting "Europe After the Rains." Thomas Pynchon. The
	atmosphere of British Second World War films.
	_The_Prisoner_. Robin Hood. Dick Turpin... (270)

	Also of great import in the development of
_V_for_Vendetta_ was, obviously, the political climate of
England and the West during the early 1980s.  Moore cites that
the Conservative party would "obviously lose the 1983
elections."  With the Labour Party in charge, he reasoned,
certain changes would follow:  they would remove all American
missiles from British soil to prevent Britain "from becoming a
major target in the event of a nuclear war."  From these
assumptions, Moore claims, it was a small step "from that
point up until the Fascist takeover in the post-holocaust Britain
of the 1990's."  Of course, the Conservatives, not the Labour
party, won the 1983 elections.  In his 1988 introduction to the
American DC comics edition of the book, Moore addressed his
earlier comments in light of actual political history:

	There is a certain amount of political inexperience upon
	my part evident in [the] earlier episodes.  Back in 1981
	the term 'nuclear winter' had not passed into common
	currency, and although my guess about climatic
	upheaval came pretty close to the eventual truth of the
	situation, the fact remains that the story to hand
	suggests that a nuclear war, even a limited one, might
	be survivable.  To the best of my current knowledge, this
	is not the case.  Naivete can also be detected in my
	supposition that it would take something as
	melodramitic as a near-miss nuclear conflict to nudge
	England towards fascism.... The simple fact that much of
	the historical background of the story proceeds from a
	predicted Conservative defeat in the 1982 General
	Election should tell you how reliable we were in our roles
	as Cassandras.

	Citing Margaret Thatcher's confidence in unbroken
Conservative leadership "well into the next century,"
police vans with rotating video cameras mounted on top,
and the circulating ideas in England of concentration
camps for AIDS victims and the eradication of
homosexuality "even as an abstract concept," Moore in
1988 obviously felt that, despite the fact that the Labor
party didn't win the election. his other predictions were
coming true.  

A Note on the Style of This Annotation
	In annotating this work, I have adopted a system that
will allow the reader to follow each entry easily.  The first
number indicates the page on which the original entry may be
found.  The second number indicates the row, numbered from
top to bottom; most pages have three rows of art, while some
have fewer.  Finally, the last number indicates the column,
numbered from left to right.  The prologue to Book Two is
"sideways" but the same system applies if the reader turns the
book as he or she would normally do to read the words.
	In formatting the file for ascii, I have used the convention
of underline-spaces to indicate books, movies, and any case of
underlineing in a quote, and asterisks to represent bold and
italics in quotes.

	Before we get into this group of additions to the annotations
	of V for Vendetta, let's set forth the basis of a lot of them:
	the Illuminatus trilogy by Robert Shea and Robert Anton
	Wilson.  (The latter has continued the Illuminatus series in
	separate books written without Shea, but the Trilogy is still
	the cornerstone of the series.)  Alan Moore has obviously read
	these books, and probably related ones on the Illuminati, as
	in-jokes and / or references to them turn up not only in this
	series but in Watchmen and several other of his stories.
	However, not too many reviewers seem to have picked up on the
	Illuminati symbolism, so I'll try to list what I can of the
	references that pop up in his works.

	V himself is an Illuminatus symbol.  The letter V, in Roman
	numerals, stands for 5, and thus his name invokes the Law of
	Fives from Illuminatus theory.  As I understand it--and my
	understanding is very flawed!--the Law of Fives tends to posit
	that everything can be related somehow to the number 5, which
	is supposedly of mystical import.  Also, V appears to have the
	aspect of an Illuminated One himself, being smarter, stronger,
	and more powerful than his foes.  (Only when Officer Finch has
	had a drug-induced "illumination" experience himself is he
	able to understand part of V's thinking, and thus to destroy
	him.)  Evey (whose name suggests the phrase "Eve V"--the Eve
	to V's Adam) undergoes a similar, though not drug-induced,
	"baptism" experience of illumination in issue #10.  The DC
	editions of V for Vendetta have Roman numerals on them, with
	each one labelled "Vol. (X) of X".  Thus, 5 issues (!) have a
	"V" in the number, and all issues have an "X"...possibly two
	V's meeting in the center, or a reflected V, or V times two,
	or an invocation of X as an unknown quantity.  Or, perhaps,
	all or none of these.

	The propensity of V's as a motif in this series is, thus, a
direct reference to Illuminati mythos.

7, -, -		Europe After the Reign (title)
	The title of the first book refers to the painting "Europe
	After the Rains" by Max Ernst, and holds within it implications
	of climatic upheavals of the nuclear near-miss.  "After the
	reign" certainly refers to the dissolution of the royalty with a
	certain ominous ring, just as the painting's title implies a great
	heaviness over the entire continent.  The title page image, of a
	single gloved hand (which surely indicates cold weather)
	placing something heavy and black on the surface below, adds
	to the ominous nature.
	The painting, entitled "L'Europe apres la pluie," was
	created in 1940-42.  It is described as "a funereal scene full of
	waste and putrefaction, peopled only by bestial creatures that
	wander around in solitude," (pg. 44-45)  Ernst had been
	creating similar works which implied "the ruined, the fossilised
	and the lifeless; surfaces seem to be decayed, eaten away by
	acid and pierced by innumerable holes like the surface of a
	sponge," (pg. 44) for some time before WWII (works in the
	technique called decalomania date to 1936, 37, 40 -- really
	before the war?  Where was he at this time? Being put into
	various camps, being relkeased, put back in, escaping, put
	back in, escaping, finally flees to America. (pg. 94)) but it was
	after his "premonition of war was translated into reality" that he
	fled to America.  There, haunted by the memories of Europe
	torn apart, he created the composition also called "Europa
	nach dem Regen," which translates as Europe after the Rain or
	Europe after the Flood (pg. 44).
	Ernst was born in 1891 in Bruhl, south of Cologne, on
	the banks of the Rhine (pg  29).  His paintings often describe "a
	world in which the history of mankind has been wholly erased
	by a cataclysmic event in the iniverse...or by the conscious act
	of revolution which has destroyed everything." (p.8).  In 1925,
	his best friend Pual Eluard wrote about Ernst's mental attitude,
	"which sought to destroy all culture that was inherited or not
	the result of personal experience, as if it were a sort of
	sclerosis in Western society: 'There cannot be total revolution
	but only permanent revolution.  Like love, it is the fundamental
	joy of life.'"  (footnote pg. 8).  Ernst participated in a Dada
	exhibitions where observers destroyed his art and viewed
	pieces nailed to walls and thrown on the ground.  In order to
	reach the gallery of of the event, viewers passed through the
	lavatory of a beer house where a young girl dressed as a
	communicant recited lewd verse.  The exhibit was closed on
	the charges of fraud (advertising it as art, which the
	perpretrators dismissed, commenting that it was advertised as
	Dada, which has nothing to do with art, and that it wasn't their
	fault if the public though it did) and obsenity (based on D|rer's
	engraving of Adam and Eve, which had been incorporated into
	one of Ernst's sculptures).  It was subsequently reopened.
	According to the Hamlyn, the event was intended to embarrass
	and provoke the public (note, page 8).  This element of drama
	and provocation is a thread that runs through
	_V_for_Vendetta_ as well.

9, 1, 1	The fifth of the eleventh...
	This is the first reference to Guy Fawkes day, the
	anniversary of the day when Guy Fawkes was caught in the
	basement of Parliament with a large amount of explosives.
	Fawkes was a Catholic extremist and a military hero who
	distinguished himself as a courageous and cooly determined
	soldier through his exploits fighting with the Spanish army in
	the Netherlands (Encyclopaedia Britannica 705).  He was
	recruited by disgruntled Catholics who plotted to blow up
	Parliament and kill King James I.  James had worked to
	institute a fine for people who refused to attend Anglican
	services (Encyclopaedia Britannica 571), adding to the
	oppression Catholics already suffered in England.  One of the
	conspirators rented a house which shared part of it's cellar with
	Parliament, and the group filled the basement with gunpowder.
	Fawkes was chosen to start the fire, and was supposed to
	escape in the fifteen minutes before the explosion;  if he could
	not escape, "he was quite ready to die in so holy a cause,"
	(Williams 479).  One of the conspirators had a friend in
	Parliament; he warned the friend not to attend the opening on
	the day choosen for the plot, and the paranoid King James
	immediately ferreted out the plot.  Fawkes was caught in the
	basement with the match, and was tortured.  He was executed
	directly across from Parliament on January 31, 1606.

9, 3, 2		_Utopia_ (book on shelf)
	This was Sir Thomas More's famous work of 1516	
	(Sargent 844), in which he outlined the "humane features of a
	decent, planned society," (Greer 307) a society of common
	property, liberality, equality, and tolerence (Greer 456).

9, 3, 2		_Uncle_Tom's_Cabin_ (book on shelf)
	Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and published in
	1852, this novel about the depressing life-styles of black slaves
	in the American South contributed greatly to popular anti-
	slavery sentiment (Foster 756-66).

9, 3, 2		_Capital_ (book on shelf)
	This was Karl Marx's magnum opus of 1867.  It was his
	major treatise on politics, economy, humanity, society, and
	government; Tucker describes it as "the fullest expression of
	[Marx's] entire world-view," (x).

9, 3, 2		_Mein_Kampf_ (book on shelf)
	Nazi Leader Adolf Hitler's biographical proclamation of
	his beliefs, _Mein_Kampf_, or My Struggle, was written during
	his imprisonment following his first attempted coup against the
	Bavarian government in 1923 (Greer 512).  Moore no doubt
	intended the irony of placing this work next to Marx's, as the
	ultra-right wing Nazi's were strong opponents of communism.

9, 3, 2		_Murder_in_the_Rue_Morgue_ (movie poster)
	This was a 1932 horrow film made for Universal.  It was
	a substantial rewrite of the Edgar Allen Poe story, and starred
	Bela Lugosi, a famous horror star.  It is about a series of
	terrible murders that turn out to be the work of a trained ape
	(Halliwell 678). This reference may contain some
	foreshadowing as to V's methods of disquising his attacks on
	the system, and his serial killer traits.

9, 3, 2		_Road_to_Morocco_ (movie poster)
	This 1942 Paramount film was one of a series of light
	romantic comedies starring Bing Crosby and Bob Hope as two
	rich playboys who travel around the world having zany
	adventures (Halliwell 825).

9, 3, 2		_Son_of_Frankenstein_ (movie poster)
	The 1939 Universal horror film, Son of Frankenstein,
	was the last of the classic trio. It starred Boris Karloff, a famous
	horror-film actor, and involved the return of the Baron's son and
	his subsequent dabbling (Halliwell 906).

9, 3, 2		_White_Heat_ (movie poster)
	White Heat, made in 1949 for Warner, starred James
	Cagney.  It plot involved a "violent, mother-fixated  gangster"
	who finally falls after a government agent infiltrates his gang
	(Halliwell 1073).  This may be another important foreshadow,
	as V, too, brings down the violent and disfunctional party leader
	by infiltrating his ranks.

10, 3, 3	...make Britain great again.
	This is typically "nationalistic" sentiment.  European
	nationalism, which traces its root to the Hundred Year's War
	(Greer 269-275), is the concept that each nation has a single
	common culture and history which, inevitably, is considered by
	that nation to be better than any other's.  It was this sentiment,
	taken to its extremes, that drove Hitler's Nationalist Socialist
	(Nazi) Workers' Party to try to rid Germany of "non-Germans."
	(Wolfgang 246-249).

11, 3, 3	The Multiplying vilanies of nature do swarm upon him...
	This is a line spoken by the Sargeant in Act I, scene II,
	from Shakespeare's MacBeth (766).

11, 9/10       Has anyone picked up on Evey's invocation of "oh
	Jesus no please" followed, one panel later, by V's first
	apperance?  V is Evey's deliverer from the Fingermen, an
	anti-messiah of sorts...hopefully not an antichrist! 

11-13	       V rescues Evey, who was going to attempt her first act of
	prostitution, from a mob of Fingermen.  It might be stretching
	it to compare this scene to that of Christ's suggestion to a
	group of men who had brought an adulteress to Him that the one
	among them without sin should "cast the first stone".  But,
	since the adulteress was misidentified in the public mind
	later as Mary Magdalene, this might cast Evey in that
	role...Magdalene to V's messiah, Eve to his Adam.  "Eve V"
	again. 


4/9, 10:       Has anyone picked up on Evey's invocation of "oh
	Jesus no please" followed, one panel later, by V's first
	apperance?  V is Evey's deliverer from the Fingermen, an
	anti-messiah of sorts...hopefully not an antichrist! 

11 - 13:       V rescues Evey, who was going to attempt her first act of
	prostitution, from a mob of Fingermen.  It might be stretching
	it to compare this scene to that of Christ's suggestion to a
	group of men who had brought an adulteress to Him that the one
	among them without sin should "cast the first stone".  But,
	since the adulteress was misidentified in the public mind
	later as Mary Magdalene, this might cast Evey in that
	role...Magdalene to V's messiah, Eve to his Adam.  "Eve V"
	again. 

13,9:          V: "I'm...the black sheep of the family."  Christ was
called the Lamb of God, sacrificed for mankind's sins as sheep were 
sacrificed for an individual's sin in ancient Israel.  V could be seen
as Moore's Christ-figure here...or antichrist figure...and thus his
statement gains symbolic weight.  

14, 1, 1-2 "Remember, remember...the fifth of November, the
		Gunpowder treason and plot
		I know of no reason why the Gunpowder treason ever should
		be forgot."
        Law of Fives again.
	This is one version of a English children's rhyme.  In
	searching for a corraborating poem, I searched through
	_The_Subject_Index_to_Poetry_for_Children_and_Young
	_People,_1957-1975_, which listed five collections of poems
	which included verses about Guy Fawkes (Smith and Andrews
	267).  One of these, _Lavender's_Blue_, included the following
	version from at least 1956:
		Please to remember the fifth of November
		Gunpowder, treason and plot
		I see no reason why gunpowder treason
		Should ever be forgot (Lines 161).
	The _Oxford_Dictionary_of_Quotations_ attributes this version
	to an anonymous broadsheet song from 1826 (Cubberlege
	368), and the first two lines as being "traditional since 17th
	century," (Cubberlege 9).

14, 1, 2	Parliament blows up...
	In this scene, V has succeeded in doing what Fawkes
	failed; his and Evey's position opposite Parliament is probably
	significant, as it was opposite Parliament that Fawkes was
	hanged (Encyclopaedia Britannica 705).

14, 2, 2	The fireworks form the shape of a "V"
	This refers to the common practice of exploding
	fireworks on Guy Fawkes day as part of the celebration
	(_Encyclopaedia_Britannica_, p.705).  It is likely also a
	reference to "'Repent, Harlequin!' Said the Ticktockman" by
	Harlan Ellison (see discussion, below).

	7/9: V: "There.  The overture is finished.  Come. We must
	prepare for the first act..."  V is conscious (as is Moore) of
	using theatrical imagery in his work.  (The cover of this
	issue, dominated by V's dressing-room mirror and his hung-up
	disguise and makeup, emphasizes this as well.)  V uses Britain
	as his theater, the stage upon which he will enact his mystery
	play.  Fittingly, this panel closes out Episode One.  

14, 9           V: "There.  The overture is finished.  Come. We must
	prepare for the first act..."  V is conscious (as is Moore) of
	using theatrical imagery in his work.  (The cover of this
	issue, dominated by V's dressing-room mirror and his hung-up
	disguise and makeup, emphasizes this as well.)  V uses Britain
	as his theater, the stage upon which he will enact his mystery
	play.  Fittingly, this panel closes out Episode One.  

15, 3, 1	England Prevails
	This sentiment sounds a lot like the thrust in a verse
	from James Thomson's 1740 play, _Alfred:_a_Masque_ (Act
	III, last scene):
		When Britain first, at heaven's command, Arose from
		out the azure main,
		This was the charter of the land, And guardian angels
		sung this strain:
		"Rule Britannia, rule the waves; Britons never will be
		slaves." (Cubberlege 	545).

18, -, - 	Paintings (images)
	I have been unable to determine the artists or titles of
	the paintings on this page.

18, 2, 3	_Frankenstein_ (book on shelf)
	This is a famous science fiction/social commentary of
	1818 by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley.  According to Inga-Stina
	Ewbanks, its "timeless theme" is that "of man creating what is
	beyond his power to control," (5).

18, 2, 3	_Gulliver's_Travels_ (book on shelf)
	This was a utopia novel written in 1726 by Jonathon
	Swift, an English social satyrist who lived most of his life in
	Ireland (Adler ix-x).

18, 2, 3	_Decline_and_Fall_of_ ...? (book on shelf)
	This work is probably meant to be Edward Gibbs'
	_The_History_of_the_Decline_and_Fall_of_the_Roman_Empire_, 
	more commonly known simply as
	_The_Decline_and_Fall_of_the_Roman_Empire-.  The six
	volume set was written between 1776 and 1788, and is
	considered on of the best histories ever written (Rexroth 596).

18, 2, 3	_Essays_of_Elia_Lamb_ (book on shelf)
	Elia, or Charles, Lamb first published his famous
	essays in the pages of London Magazine from 1820 to 1825,
	then collected into two volumes, published in 1923 and 1833.
	His essays are considered to be personal, sensative, and rich
	(Altick 686-87).

18, 2, 3	_Don_Quixote_ (book on shelf)
	This was a satiric novel about chivalry, written around
	1600 (Adler ?) by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes.  Its
	hero was a caractatured romantic knight who is hopelessly
	idealistic (Greer 307).

18, 2, 3	_Hard_Times_ (book on shelf)
	Charles Dickens wrote this "single-minded attack on...
	industrialism" in 1854.  It juxtaposes the serious and studious
	industrialists with a creative, fun circus that comes to the town
	in which the novel is set (Ewbanks 786).  It probably would
	have appealed to V's sense of drama and its victory over the
	drab.

18, 2, 3	_French_Revolution_ (book on shelf)
	This volume could be any history of the French
	Revolution, which was faught between 1787 and 1792.
	
18, 2, 3	_Faust_ (book on shelf)
	Goethe's famous poem, _Faust_, was published
	beginning in 1808.  It retold a Renaissance legend about a
	doctor who bargains with the devil for youth and power.  The
	second part, published posthumosly, was a philosophical
	treatise in which Faust's soul is saved because he loves and
	serves both God and humanity, despite his errors.  This Faust
	is considered to embody the "modern" human (Greer 426).

18, 2, 3	_Arabian_Nights_Entertainment_ (book on shelf)
	This book is a collection of folk stories originally from
	India, but which travelled through Persia and into Arabia.
	Although set in 8th-9th century Bagdad, they retain many more
	characteristics of 15th century Egypt, where they were formally
	transcribed (Wickens 164).

18, 2, 3	_The_Odessey_ (book on shelf)
	One of two epic Greek historical poems set around 800
	B.C. and composed by Homer.  Although Homer's identity is
	uncertain, and he may even be an archtypical character
	himself, his _Odyssey_ is an adventurous story about the
	return of Greek was heroes across rough seas (Greer 66).

18, 2, 3	_V_ (book on shelf)
	Thomas Pynchon's 1963 novel, _V_, is considered an
	important early "post-modern" work.  It combined "bits of
	history, science, philosophy, and pop psychology," with
	paranoid characters and scientific metaphors.  Pynchon's work
	is described as modulating "between the realms of 'high
	culture' and the pop underground of drugs and media culture,"
	(Kadrey and McCaffery 19).  This may be said of the Shadow
	Gallery, and of _V_for_Vendetta_ as a work, as well.
	
18, 2, 3	_Doctor_No_ (book on shelf)
	Ian Fleming, a former British intelligence agent, wrote
	this espionage novel in 1958.  Fleming's novels were
	supposedly based on his real-life experiences as a spy (Reilly
	320).

18, 2, 3	_To_Russia_With_Love_ (book on shelf)
	Another of Fleming's novels, this one was written in
	1957 (Reilly 320).

18, 2, 3	_Illiad_ (book on shelf)
	Another poem by Homer, the _Illiad_, dealt with the
	violent, bloody Trojan War.

18, 2, 3	_Shakespeare_ (2 volumes) (book on shelf)
	Shakespeare was an Elizabethan playwrite whose
	dramas and sonnets are considered classic humanist
	Renaissance works (Greer 307).

18, 2, 3	_Ivanhoe_ (book on shelf)
	One of  Sir Walter Scott's dramatic and romantic
	historical novel, _Ivanhoe_ was written in 1820 (Greer 425).

18, 2, 3	_The_Golden_Bough_ (book on shelf)
	James G. Frazer's exhaustive 13 vol. work on primative
	superstitions was first published in 1890.  V's book shelf
	contains a single volume from the work.

18, 2, 3	_Divine_Comedy_ (book on shelf)
	This was a masterpiece of Italian literature by Dante
	Alighieri.  Begun around 1306 and finished by Dante's death in
	1321, it deals with the author's trip through the afterlife.

18, 3, 3	Martha and the Vandellas
	A Rhythm-and-Blues musical group, produced and
	distributed by the Motown record label between 1963 and
	1972.  They got their start as back-up singers for Marvin Gaye,
	another Motown star, and then launched a sucessful career as
	agressive and flamboyant performers.  The song, "Dancing in
	the Streets," was released in 1964. (Sadie 178).

18, 3, 3	Motown
	Motown was an independant, African-American-owned
	record label based in Detroit, Michigan (Motortown).  The word
	also describes the distinguishing pop-soul style of music that
	brought sucess to the label.  This "Motown sound" drew on the
	blues, rhythm-and-blues, gospel, and rock, but unlike other
	African-American musical styles, it also relied on some of the
	practices of accepted Anglo-American popular music, and it
	muted some of the "more vigorous characteristics of Afro-
	American music and performance practices," (Sadie 283).

19, 1, 2	Tamla, Trojan
        Tamla Records was a subsidiary of Motown.  Stevie Wonder was 
	one of their biggest stars.  
	"Trojan was formed as a subsidiary (which later went independent, I                                   
	believe) of Island records and they focused on jamaican ska and reggea.                               
	Bob Marley recorded his best work, "Soul Rebels" and "Soul Revolution",                               
	 for Trojan under the legendery production of Lee Perry (but that.s a                                 
	 whole other story)."

19, 1, 2	Billie Holiday
	A famous jazz singer, Billy Holiday was extremely 	
	popular with the politically left-wing white intellectuals in
	New York.  She recorded with some of the jazz's greats,
	including Benny Goodman and Count Basie.  She 	
	descended into a world of drugs, alcohol, and abuse, 	
	and died in 1959, at the age of 44 (Sadie 409-410).

19, 1, 2	Black Uhuru
	This group was one of the most famous reggae bands 	
	from Jamaica.  They were formed in 1974 in Kingston 	
	(Sadie 46-47).  Reggae is a distinctive Jamaican dance 	
	music, influenced both by Afro-Carribean music and by 	
	American Rhythm-and-Blues (Sadie 464).

19, 1, 2	...his Master's Voice...
	RCA's motto pictured a dog staring into the bell of a 	
	gramaphone, an early phonograph record player.

19, 3, 3	Aden
	Aden was both another name for the People's
	Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) and the 	
	country's capitol city.  The country, which is now 	
	merged with North Yemen, occupied the Southern tip of
	the Arabian Peninsula, south of Saudi Arabia.  The 	
	British colonized it, and maintained partial rule there 	
	until the country became a Marxist republic in 1967 	
	(Encyclopaedia Britannica 835).
	Although Prothero's age is not given, he appears to be 	
	around 50;  it is likely that he was a soldier serving 	
	immediately before Yemen's revolution.  Thus, he would
	have been a young man during the 1967 revolution, and
	around 40 during his years as a commander at  the 	
	Larkhill Resettlement camp mentioned later in the book.

20, 2:         Ted: "Jesus Christ!  What the hell's that?"  V, of
        course.  Moore has his characters invoke Christ's name
        profanely a lot just before they meet V.  I won't list every
        instance, but a look through the text shows that Moore is
        probably being deliberate by placing Christ's name in
        juxtaposition with V's appearances. 

23, 3, 1	V in circle
	This symbol bears resemblance to Anarchy sign of A in 	
	circle, as well as Zorro's dramatic initial (Stolz 60).

24, 1, 2	Violet Carson rose
	The Violet Carson is a hybrid rose introduced in 1963 	
	(Coon 201) or 1964 (Modern Roses 7 432) by S.
	McGredy.  It is a yellow-blend Floribunda rose, created 	
	by crossing the 'Mme Leon Cuny' with the 'Spartan.'  It 	
	is described as salmon colored, with cream (Coon 201) 	
	or silver (Modern Roses 7 432) under the petals, and is 	
	a hardy and free-blooming bush.  It does not seem to be
	a very common variety, listed in publications by serious 	
	rose societies but not in books aimed at the casual 	
	reader, so it is uncertain as to how Finch would 	
	recognize it immediately.

25, 1, 3	_The_Cat_ (movie poster)
	The poster for a film called _The_Cat_ hanging on the 	
	wall appears to depict a man holding a gun.  The only 	
	film I could find with this title, however, was a 1973 	
	French drama about the uncommunicative relationship 	
	between a bitter trapeze star and her husband (Halliwell
	168).

25, 1, 3	_Klondike_Annie_ (movie poster)
	A 1936 Paramount film, _Klondike_Annie_ starred Mae 	
	West as a "torch singer on the run" who, disguised as a
	missionary, revitalizes a mission in the Klondike
	(Halliwell 542).  Some of the films depicted in the 	
	posters appear to have appealed to V for purely
	entertainment purposes.  This one, however, may give 	
	the reader a clue about V's character.  He is likewise on
	the run, disguised, and will try to revitalize the whole 	
	nation.

25, 1, 3	_Monkey_Business_ (movie poster)
	This 1931 Marx brother's film made for Paramount 	
	featured the antics of four stowaways on a ship who 	
	crash an on-board society party, where they "catch a 	
	few crooks," (Halliwell 666).  This is another clue, as V 	
	is a stowaway in the social system, crashes the system,
	and catches plenty of antagonists.

25, 1, 3	_Waikiki_Wedding_ (movie poster)
	Waikiki Wedding was made in 1937 for Paramount.  Its 	
	plot involves a press agent who is in Hawaii to promote 	
	a Pineapple Queen contest (Halliwell 1050).

26, 2           Jane Russell from a Western movie in the background.
	Don't know which picture.

26, 3, 2	Save A Whale (t-shirt)
	Because of threatened extinction of whales, many 	
	people in the 1970's began to wear t-shirts and pins 	
	proclaiming that one should "save a whale."  This 	
	sentiment has come to be associated with "liberal" 	
	politics and environmentalism.

27, 1, 1	...when Labour got into power...
	According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the British 	
	Labour Party is a reformist socialist party with strong 	
	institutional and financial ties to trade unions.  In
	January 1981, due to vast internal changes, the Labor 	
	Party leader elected was Michael Foot, a militant 	
	socialist who's policies included "unilateral nuclear 	
	disamament, nationalization of key industries, union 	
	power, and heavy taxation," (82), just as Moore 		
	described in "Behind the Painted Smile"  (271)
	
27, 1, 1	...President Kennedy...
	The implication is that the President of the United 	
	States is either Ted Kennedy, a democratic senator and
	nephew to the former president John F. Kennedy, or 	
	John Kennedy, jr, the former president's son.
	
28, 2, 1	Norsefire
	This is probably the name of the state party, as flags 	
	and uniforms all display large N's.  "Norse" derives from
	the Norsemen or Vikings of the Scandinavia countries 	
	who invaded Europe in the 5th and 6th (Greer 183).  	
	They were fierce, strong, and "aryan" -- the blonde, 	
	blue-eyed "ideal" population fetishized by Hitler's Nazi 	
	Party (Greer 513-514).  The choice of this image helps 	
	to identify the government's politics.

28, 6           Label on the box of matches Evey is packing: "Lucifer."
        Of course, there's the obvious metaphor for the "devil"-system
        V is fighting against, but it also invokes William Blake's
        "dark Satanic mills" metaphor for industrial age England. 
	Lucifer mean light-bringer (from latin lux (light) and ferre
        (to carry). 

28, 7           Evey: "That's how it was for four years..."  And in
        the fifth year of her employment, she meets V.  

31, 2, 3	The Tupenny Rush
	Tuppenny is slang for a two-penny piece, or a tuppence 	
	(Partridge, _Unconventional_, 916). Most slang
	definitions of "rush" involve swindels or robbery,
	especially the extortion of money by quick talking, which
	does not allow the victim to think.  Thus, the "tupenny 	
	rush" is likely a reference to such a swindle.

31, 2, 3	The Penny Dreadful
	Coined in the Pall Mall Gazette in 1892, the phrase was
	used to describe any sensational tale; after 1910, it 	
	referred especially to cheap and sensational novels 	
	(Partridge, _Historical_, 679).

31, 2, 3	All the world's a stage
	This is a quote from Shakespeare's play
	_As_You_Like_It_, Act II, scene vii. (Bartlett 211).
	
33, 3, 1	darkies
	The term "darkies" refers to any people of color.  It's 	
	origin is American, circa 1775; it was anglicized by 	
	1840 (Partridge, _Unconventional_, 208)

33, 3, 1	Nancy boy
	"Nancy" was 19th and 20th century slang for effiminate 	
	men or "catamites," young boys kept for "unnatural 	
	purposes"(Partridge, _Historical_, 610), and refers here 	
	to homosexuals.

33, 3, 1	Beatniks
	"Beatniks" were bohemian artists and poets who, during
	the 1940's and 1950's, romanticized the "negro" culture.
	As a rule, they listened to jazz music, wrote avant garde
	poetry, and held politically leftist (Marxist) opinions.  The
	term was coined 1958, by San Francisco journalist Herb
	Caen (Alfonso 7), and was probably partially derived 	
	from the jazz term "beat," which refers to rhythm, with 	
	the Yiddish perjorative suffix "-nik" added on (Partridge, 	
	_Unconventional_, 1000).  However, "beat generation" 	
	member Jack Keroac coined the root term, beat, in 	
	1949; he insisted it came from the word "beatific," 	
	(Alfonso 7).

37, 3          "My name is Adam Susan.  I am the leader."  The
	ultimate villain of the piece is named Adam, and V, Moore's
	Christ-figure, is his nemesis.
  
	Adam's sin is Facism, V will deliver Britain from it, but only
	at the cost of his life.

41, 3, 3	"O Beauty, 'til now I never knew thee..."
        A Shakespeare (mis)quote from King Henry VIII, Act 1 Sc 4.
        (found by Paul Kelly)
	
42, 2, 3	...take five.
	The popular expression for taking a break comes from a
	show business phrase, although Union Laws now 	
	require ten minute breaks (Sergal 219).

44, 1, 1	Painting (image) 
        "The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian", by the brothers Piero and
	Antonio del Pollaiuolo.

        http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/cgi-bin/WebObjects.dll/CollectionPublisher.woa/wa/work?workNumber=NG292

        Saint Sebastian is the patron saint of soldiers and enemies
	of religion, among others. Interesting, considering that V is
	planning the murder of Bishop Lilliman.

        http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saints03.htm
	(found by Paul Kelly)

	
47, 3           "She says she's fifteen, your grace."  Actually, Evey is
	16...this invokes the five motif again.  Also, since Evey is
	playing a role for V's purposes here, her appearance with the
	Bishop might be an invocation of the British joke-couple, the
	Actress and the Bishop.

47, 2, 2	Mea Culpa
	This is latin for "I confess," or "the guilt is mine," (Jones 	
	69).

48, 2, -		Bring me my bow of burning gold, Bring me my arrows 	
		of desire, Bring me My spear, O clouds unfold, Bring 	
		me my chariot of fire...I will not cease from mental 	
		flight Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand 'Till we 	
		have built Jerusalem In England's green and pleasant 	
		land.
	This is part of William Blake's poem, "And Did Those 	
	Feet," from the preface to his collection _Milton_.  	
	Blake's preface to this work was a call for Christians to 	
	condemn the classical writings of Homer, Ovid, Plato, 	
	and Cicero, and to instead revere the Bible.  He
	declared "We do not want either Greek or Roman 	
	Models," in England; rather, he said, his fellow
	Christians should strive to create "those Worlds of 	
	Eternity in which we shall live for ever," (MacLagan and 	
	Russell xix).  V is, in his way, trying to create his idea of 	
	Jerusalem, a free world, in England.

54, 2, 2	"Please allow me to introduce myself.  I'm a man of 	
		wealth and taste"
	These are the opening lines from "Sympathy for the 	
	Devil" by the rock group, the Rolling Stones, released in
	1968.

55, 3, 3	"I am the Devil, and I come to do the devil's work,"
        This phrase was reportedly uttered by Tex Watson of the Charles 
        Manson gang when he committed the first of the murders at the 
        Roman Polanski estate, whose victims included Sharon Tate.

56, 2, 1-2   The Lord is my shepherd: therefore I can lack 	
		nothing; He shall feed me in green pasture and lead 	
		me forth beside the waters of comfort.  He shall 		
		convert my soul and bring me forth in the paths of 	
		righteousness, for His name's sake...
	This seems to be a strange version of the 23rd Psalm 	
	from the biblical book of Psalms.  It is nothing like the 	
	common King James standard version:
		The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want.  He maketh 	
		me lie down in green pastures; He leadeth me 		
		beside the still waters.  He restoreth my soul: he 	
		leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his 	
		name's sake. (Bartlett 18)
	I looked through several bibles and discovered that each
	had a different version.  One fairly common version, 	
	from the standard _Holy_Bible_ (Catholic version) 	
	reads:
		The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not be in want. He 	
		makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me 	
		beside quiet waters, he restores my soul.  He guides 	
		me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. 	
		(310)
	Another version had been rewritten into rhyming verse 	
	by Sir Phillip Sidney and his sister, the Countess of 	
	Pembroke.  Still another example, from the Bay Balm 	
	Book, dated to 1640 and had been rendered very 	
	difficult to read.  The Septuagint Bible, which is a 	
	translation from Greek of "the oldest version of the old 	
	testament," offered still another reading.  There seems 	
	to be a different translation of the _Bible_ for every sect 	
	and branch of Christianity not to mention numerous 	
	"plain" or "modern" English versions, and I was unable 	
	to determine the origin of this version.

        2 plus 3 equals 5, or V.  (In case this seems like far-
	fetched reasoning, let me point out that the
	Illuminatus trilogy indulges in lots of such thin
	numerology.)  

60, 3           Bishop talking to V: "Oh God, who are you?  Who are
        you really?" V: "I am the Devil, and I come to do the devil's
        work." Finch: "That's a quote, that bit about the devil's
        work.  Famous  murder case, nearly twenty years ago now." 
	The quote is from Tex Watson, a member of Charlie Manson's
        Family.  He allegedly said it just before committing the first
        murder at the Roman Polanski estate.  (Ironically enough,
        Watson is  now a Christian minister.)  

68, 3, 1	The Magic Faraway Tree by Enid Blyton
	is a real book.
        It is about the adventures of some children in
        mysterious lands with the fairy folks. It all begins with 
        two children who found a magic tree that has different 
        lands on the top of it everyday. The folks living on the tree,
        Saucepan man, Moonface, Silky, Dame Washalot, etc. are all 
        very cute and interesting characters.

73, 1, 3	I heard of an experiment once...
	The experiment, which was not quite as dramatic as is 	
	described here, was conducted at Yale University in 	
	1963 by Stanley Milgram.  The volunteers did not 	
	actually believe they were killing the victims, and 65% 	
	(26 of 40 volunteers) continued to administer what they 	
	believed to be dangerous, severe shocks to thier victim 	
	(Milgram 376).

76-77           Derek Almond should be able to blow V away here, but
	isn't, because he wasn't smart enough to reload his gun after
	playing Russian Roulette on his wife earlier with the gun
	unloaded.  Only an illuminated one (like Finch, in a later
	issue) will be able to kill V.  Derek is literally and
	metaphorically unenlightened. 

78, 2, 2        Christmas Eve, and, for a present, Finch gets
	Dr. Burridge's diary.  Since it gives him the information
	about V's origin, it's not a bad gift at all. 

80, 2, 3	...the Pituarin/Pinearin mixture...
	I could find no information on either substance, however 
	I thought that they would be artificial drugs used to 
	stimulate/simulate the output of the pituartary(sp?) and 
	pineal glands.

	http://www.magnet.ch/serendipity/mcclay/pineal.shtml

	has loads on the pineal gland, especially in conjunction 
	with LSD and the effects on serotonin output. As far as 
	I can make out the serotonin bridges the synaptic gap,
	thus increased output would possibly speed the reactions.

	Fraid that I couldn't find anything on the pituartary off 
	hand, although again it may have some bearing on V's abilities.
 
80, 3, 1        Dr. Burridge's diary is a five-year diary.  But of
	course.  The events of V for Vendetta begin in the fifth year
	after V's "origin".

81, 3, 1	...he's sorted out the whitefly and it looks like being a 	
		good yield.
	White flies, or Aleyrodidae, are a pest that cause 	
	problems with many food plants (Chittenden 72).  Thus, 	
	V dealt with the whitefly problem.

	Donald Crane, under the effect of Burridge's drug,
	grows four extra nipples, and Rita Boyd has four vestigial
	fingers in the calf of her leg.  Not five, for either of them:
	neither can become V. 

81, 3, 3	ammonia-based fertilizer Some fertilizers contain
	ammonia, which, in the presence of the correct bacteria, can
	be broken down into nitrates and used by plants (Chittenden
	99). Nitrogenous fertilisers, when mixed with diesel oil can
	create a powerful if crude explosive. I have heard that this
	was first discovered in rural Germany at the turn of the
	century when farm workers dumped a load of diesel oil unto a
	compost or silage heap which later caught fire and exploded
	several nearby buildings. The provisional IRA were also fond
	of using home made 'fertiliser bombs' to attack British army
	forts in Ulster during the 70's and 80's. They were favoured
	because all the ingredients can be purchased legally and are
	simple farming materials.

82, 1, 2	grease solvent
	I believe this is referring to a kind of pesticide which is 	
	contained in petroleum-based solvents (Sive C204).

	V's origin takes place on Christmas Day, four years ago
	to the day from this point in the story.  Now V can begin the
	fifth year of his work, after having dealt out his justice to
	those who victimized the "patients" at Larkhill. 

83, 2, 2	mustard gas
	This gas was created for chemical warfare purposes 	
	during WWI.  It causes severe blistering and eye 	
	irritation.  It's chemical structure is (ClCH2CH2)2S (b,b-	
	dichloro-ethyl sulfide) (Encyclopedia Americana 679).

83, 2, 3	napalm
	Napalm is a gasoline-based explosive derived during  
	WWII (Encyclopedia Americana 724).  I am not certain  
	whether one could make either Napalm or mustard gas  
	from gardening ingredients.

        So called 'home made napalm' is commonly considered to consist
	of diesel oil or petrol, sugar, polystyrene flakes (or other
	similar material) and washing up liquid (again or other
	similar product).


© by Ralf Hildebrandt
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