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An Annotation of Literary, Historic, and Artistic References in Alan Moore's Graphic Novel, _V_for_Vendetta_. Madelyn Boudreaux, Madelyn@gothics.org April 27, 1994 Part 3 of 3 Copyright 1994, Madelyn Boudreaux. Distribute but do not modify. Send corrections, changes, and suggestions to Madelyn@gothics.org 182, 3, 1 1812 Overture This piece of music, written in 1880 by Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky, was commissioned for the consecration of the Moscow Cathedral of Christ. The cathedral was built in thansgiving for Napolean's defeat in 1812. The work incorporated an old Russian hymn, and included both the French national anthem, the "Marseillaise," to represent Napoleon's invasion, and "God Save the Czar" to symbolize Russia's victory. Moore probably chose this work both for its "revolutionary" sound, and for its unusual motif: the original orchestration included battlefield guns which the conductor set off with electrical switches (_Adventures_in_Light_Classical_Music_ 34), an action which V imitates with his bombs. 188, 2, 3 Bollocks This is ribald slang for testicles; it derives from "ballocks," and was standard english until 1840, when it became vulgar (Partridge, _Unconventional_, 29). 195, 3, 1 Ordnung This is German for a state of order and arrangemnt (Betteridge 452). 195, 3, 2 Verwirrung This is the German noun for a state of confusion, entangelment, and confusion (Betteridge 686). 196, 1, 1 Turning and turning in the widening gyre the falcon cannot hear the falconer. Things fall apart... the centre cannot hold. -- Yeats These words are from William Butler Yeats' poem "The Second Coming," which tells of an Christ/anti-Christ figure being borne of humanity's chaotic history (Donoghue 95-96). It illustrates V's vision of a chaotic world, but V believes that out of the choas will come order. This is also foreshadowing, for V is the book's Christ figure and Evey is it's second coming. 201, -, - Still all in love and war is fair, they say, this being both and turn-about's fair play. Though I must bear a cuckold's horns, they're not a crown that I shall bear alone. You see, my rival, though inclined to roam, possessed at home a wife that he adored. He'll rue his promiscuity, the rogue who stole my only love, when he's informed how many years it is since first I bedded his. V often speaks, as he does here, in iambic pentameter, which is a rhythmic scheme. Each line consists of five metrical "feet," each of which contains two syllables, one short (unstressed) and one long (stressed), (_Encyclopedia_Americana_ 688). By speaking in Jacobean stage's characteristic blank verse, V's pay homage. Stolz points out further that a common Jacobean dramatic for was the revenge play, which V imitates in deadly fashion throughout the book (60). 208, -, - Dominoes fall (image) The dominoes, which V has been setting up from the beginning of the book, fall. In Harlan Ellison's short story "'Repent, Harlequin!' said the Ticktockman" the Harlequin's first act of terrorism is described as follows: "He had tapped the first domino in the line, and one after another, like chik chik chik, the others had fallen." "'Repent, Harlequin!' said the Ticktockman" posits a ridiculous distopia where time is both the means and the end for facism; in it, tardiness is eradicated by the constant exacting of biblical vengeance: if an individual is ten minutes late, ten minutes are taken off the end of his or her life. In this world, the Harlequin, *masked in a clown costume*, manages to disturb time by dumping $150,000 dollars worth of jellybeans on a crowd of commuters waiting on a moving sidewalk. The jellybeans, which are a mystery since they haven't been manufactured in over a hundred years (like V's fireworks and the chiming of Big Ben on page 257 of _V_for_Vendetta_), literally gum up the works of the sidewalk and throw the entire system of the world off by seven minutes. This act makes the Harlequin a terrorist against the state, and the Master Timekeeper (the Ticktockman of the title) must discover the identity of such a trouble-maker before the system is utterly destroyed. Many of the V's tricks are reminiscent of the Harlequin: both use fireworks to communicate with the masses, and both appear atop buildings to taunt the masses with singing. The Ticktockman is aware, as Finch is of V, that the Harlequin's identity is less important than the understanding of *what* he is. Both the Harlequin and V represent ideas fundamentally opposed to those upon which their worlds rely, and both, though destroyed, plant seeds that have the power to demolish the worlds that broke them. Both are celebrities of a sort, and both are enemies of the state because they want to be reformers of it (reference to Henry David Thoreau, "Civil Disobedience.") 210, 2, 1 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Also known as LSD or LSD-25, this drug is considered to be a psychotomimetic, in that it induces an imitation of a state of psychosis. It was first isolated in Basle, Switzerland in 1938 by Albert Hoffman, who created it by synthesized it from ergot, a rhy grain fungus (Stevens 3-4). 211, 1, 1 Four tablets Hoffman was also the first person to experiment with LSD-25. In his first experimenytation, he used 250 millionths of a gram, or 250 milligrams (Stevens 4). He experienced a violent "trip" and subsequent doses were lowered to about two-thirds of that anount (Stevens 10). Thus, Finch's four tablets, each packing 200 milligrams, was between four and eight times too much! 214, 3, 1 ...in nomini patri, et filii, et spiritus sancti... Latin, from the Christian mass: "In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." 216, 2, - ...La voie, la verite, la vie. These are French for the road (or way), the truth, and the life. 216, 3, 3 Stonehenge One of the largest and most complete of the standing- stone monuments in Britain. It's origin's and purpose are unknown, but it is believed to have been a kind of astrological observation site and/or a place for religious ceremonies ( ) 217, 1, 3- "Everytime we say goodbye...I die a little. Everytime we say goodbye, I wonder why a little. Do the gods above me, who must be in the know think so little of me they'd allow you to go?" The quote is from a Cole Porter song entitled "Ev'ry time we say goodbye," from Porter's revue _Seven_Lively_Arts_, from 1944. Porter (1891-1964) was an American songwriter who wrote symphonic jazz works and musicals. He is best remembered for his adaption of Shakespeare's _The_Taming_of_the_Shrew_, as the musical _Kiss_me,_Kate_ (Lax and Smith 611; Havelince 200). 217, 2, 2 "Do as thou wilt... that shall be the whole of the law." This is Aleister Crowley's "Law of Thelema," from his 1904 publication _The_Book_of_the_Law_. Crowley was a controversial and misunderstood magician and occultist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He claimed that this book was dictated to him by his guardian spirit, a "devil-god" incarnation of the Egyptian god Set, whom Crowley called Aiwas. Although some interpret the law as allowing pure anarchy, it may actually mean that "one must do what one must and nothing else," (Guiley, 76). 218, 1, 1 _Alice_in_Wonderland_ Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carrol, was a children's story in which a young girl named Alice enters a world she can never quite understand. This was both a children's adventure story and a satyrical work (_Encyclopedia_Americana_ 577). 221, 1, 1 Ray Bradbury story about corn I was unable to determine the title of this story. 223, 2, 1 I'm waiting for the man. This is a quote from the Velvet Underground song "Waiting for my man" from the album "VU and Nico" which is about a addict waiting for his "connection" who is bringing him more of his drug. 223, 3, 3 _Farewell,_My_Lovely_ poster This was a 1945 film made for RKO. It was one of the first *film noir* movies, a style characterized by the violence and depravity of its seedy characters, its confusing plots, and its dark and high-contrast photography. This film was adapted from a Raymond Chandler novel, and dealt with a private eye's search for an ex-convict's missing girl-friend (Halliwell 314). 228, 2, 2 Eva Peron... Evita Don't Cry for Me, Argentina Eva Peron was the wife of Argentina's president, Juan Peron. From 1946 to 1952, Eva Peron, also known as Evita, controlled the labor unions, and purged them of their leaders, thus making them entirely dependent on the government. She also supressed groups that insulted her. She was well-loved by much of Argentina, however (Alexander ?) Eva Peron inspired a musical, _Evita_, written by Andrew Lloyd Webber, and shown first in London in 1978. 230, 1, 1 The song is : "The Happy Wanderer" (german: "Mein Vater war ein Wandersmann") Melody by Friedrich W. Möller. Note the "V"'s: I love to go a-wandering Along the mountain track And as I go, I love to sing, My knapsack on my back. Valderi, Valdera, Valderi, Valdera ha ha ha ha ha Valderi, Valdera, My knapsack on my back. I love to wander by the stream That dances in the sun, So joyously it calls to me, Come join my happy song. Valderi, Valdera . . . . I wave my hat to all I see, And they wave back to me And blackbirds all so loud and sweet From every greenwood tree. Valderi, Valdera . . . . O may I go a-wandering Until the day I die, O may I always laugh and sing Beneath God's clear blue sky. Valderi, Valdera . . . . 230, 1, 1 ...and did those feet in ancient times... The first lines from the afore-mentioned poem by William Blake. 233, 2, - ...so how can you tell me you're lonely...and say for you that the sun don't shine? Let me take you by the hand and lead you through the streets of London, I'll show you something to make you change your mind... (song) This is "Streets of London" by Ralph Mc Gee 245, 3, 1 a viking funeral Vikings "buried" some of their dead by laying the corpse out in a ship and setting it ablaze, then pushing it out to sea. 245, 3, 1 Ave atque vale Latin for "Hail and Farewell," (Simpson 63, 70, 629) 255, 2, 2 _Les_Miserables_ (poster) This poster was from _Les_Miserables_, a modern operatic piece by Claude-Michel Schonberg, based on a novel by Victor Hugo and first performed in London in 1980. It is about a former petty criminal who, upon being released from jail, becomes a revolutionary leader (Behr 391). 258, 2, 2 ...reports of my death were exaggerated... This quote is from a telegram sent from London to the Associated Press by Mark Twain in 1897 (Bartletts 625). 264, 2, 2 Gissa shag, ay? The tramps are soliciting sex from Helen. Shag is 19th- 20th century slang for intercourse with a woman. The word possibly came from meaning "to shake or toss around," hence, a term for masturbation. (Partridge, _Unconventional_, 748). Works Cited Alexander, Robert. "Eva Peron." _Encyclopedia_Americana_. International ed. Danbury, CT: Grolier, 1989. Alfonso, Barry. Liner notes for _The_Beat_Generation_. 3 compact disc vols. Santa Monica, California: Rhino Records/Word Beat, 1992. "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland." _Encyclopedia_Americana_. International ed. Danbury, CT: Grolier, 1989. Altick, Richard D. "Charles Lamb." _Encyclopedia_Americana_. International ed. 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